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Nathlaung Kyaung Temple is to the west of the Thatbyinnyu Temple, and it is the only remaining Hindu temple in Bagan. Nat-Hlaung Kyaung temple is one of the oldest temples in Bagan and was built in the 11th century, during the reign of King Anawratha. Some historians believe the temple was built in the 10th century, during the reign of King Nyaung-u Sawrahan (also known as Taungthugyi). The temple was originally built for Hindu Burmese Indians of the 11th century, including merchants and Brahmins in the service of the king. Many structures of the original temple have disappeared, although the main hall remains. Originally, the temple contained statues of the 10 Avatars of Vishnu, including Gautama Buddha, however, today, only seven remains. . Originally there were 10 idols dedicated to Vishnu; three were removed, one is in Berlin Dahlem Museum. The brick temple was isolated and unrepaired for many years, damaged by earthquakes.
The temple is set on a square template with steep-rising upper terraces. It may have been built by Indian artisans brought into Bagan, during the 10th century AD, to work on it and other temples. As the oldest temple in Bagan, its style influenced and inspired the numerous other Buddhist structures that followed. Another legend states that the temple was built to store all the nat from other temples so that Buddhism could get established in Bagan kingdom.